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RULES OF WORLD SINGLES SQUASH 2001

The Singles Rules for 2001 have been revised to reflect current Refereeing practices and to take into account proposals of member nations. The general format of the previous Rules has been followed. The Rules are followed by a set of Appendices which include Guidelines for the interpretation of the Rules. The Guidelines are to be read in conjunction with the Rules.

An indication of the changes for 2001 is given below. As there are many changes a detailed summary would be too long. Readers are referred to the full text where changes are underlined in bold type. An alternative version without changes highlighted is available on request from WSF.

MAJOR CONCEPTUAL and RULE CHANGES

1. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.7.1. MINIMAL Interference added for which Referee`s decision is No Let. Guideline G6 is expanded to include Minimal Interference.

2. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.7.2: A return to the pre 1997 wording. Players must "make every effort to get to and play the ball".

3. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.8.2: New wording legitimizes the current practice that, if the opponent`s position prevents a player`s reasonable swing, even after the opponent made every effort to clear, the Referee shall award a stroke to the player. Guideline G7 is expanded to include application of this new rule.

4. Rule 12 - Interference: Rule 12.10: Stroke not awarded in the case of excessive swing.

5. Rule 9 - Ball hitting the opponent and a player turning. Rule completely rewritten. In particular:

5.1. Rule 9.1.2: New Rule. Referee`s decision changed. If the striker hits the opponent with the ball after turning, the Referee awards a STROKE to the opponent - previously a let. (Striker can hold the shot and ask for a let).

5.2. Rule 9.2.2: Interference on turning. Now the striker on turning can be allowed a let if the swing is obstructed or awarded a stroke if the obstruction is deliberate.

5.3. Rule 9.2.3: Unnecessary turning. As used by the PSA.

6. Rule 10 - Further attempts. Re-formatted with new subsections. New Rule 10.3 deals with interference on further attempts.

7. Rule 13 - Lets. Additional wording added in the first paragraph emphasizing that the Referee can ask a player the reason for an appeal.

7.1 New Rule 13.1.3. adds a new provision that a stroke can be awarded if distraction interrupts a winning return.

8. Rule 15 - Duties of the Players. New Rule which sets out players` responsibilities.

9. Rule 3 - The Warm-Up. Old 15.1 and 15.3 become new Rule 3.1 and Rule 3.3. New subsection 3.2 dealing with unfair warm-up and 3.4 dealing with warming up during or after an interval are added. Rule 3.1 no longer allows players the option to remain on the same side after half time called.

10. Rule 16 - Bleeding, illness, disability and injury. Rule completely re-organized and rewritten.

11. Rule 19: Duties of the Marker. New Rule 19.2. Marker must call score without delay.

12. Rule 20: Duties of the Referee.

12.1 Addition to Rule 20.1 emphasizes that the Referee must speak loudly.

12.2 New Rule 20.2.3: Crowd control now included in Rule 20, previously part of G15.

13. Guidelines: Guidelines G4, G5, G6 and G7 rewritten in the light of new rules. New G14 on Bleeding, Illness, Disability or Injury in line with the new Rule 16 and replacing old G2 and G15.

14. Appendix 2: New definitions for "crowding", "interval", "release", "reasonable swing", "service", "shaping", "turning" and "warm-up".

REWORDING and REARRANGEMENTS

1. All rules converted to the active voice.

2. All Notes converted to Rule subsections.

3. New Rule 2 - THE SCORING - formed by merging old Rules 2 - The Score and 3 - Points.

4. Rule 4 - The Service. Rewritten in the positive sense.

5. Rule 11 - Appeals. New subsections 11.1.2.1, 11.1.2.2, 11.2.1.3, 11.2.2.1, 11.2.2.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5 and 11.6.

6. Old Guidelines G3 - 18 all renumbered G2 - G17.

7. New G18. - Marker`s Guidelines formed by merging old Guidelines G19 and G20.

8. New G19. - Referee`s Guidelines formed by merging old Guidelines G21 and G22.

9. New Appendix 6 - Protective Eyewear- renumbered old Appendix 10.

DELETIONS

1. All references to doubles Rules - Appendices 2.1.1, 2.2.1 and 6.1 deleted.

2. Old Appendix 9 - Clothing. Deleted - now included under new Rule 15.8.

3. Appendix 11 - Guidelines for Tournament Referees. Deleted - this is the subject of a separate WSF Rules and Referees Committee booklet.

The WSF Rules Sub-committee of Graham Waters, Bruce Kettle and myself have been greatly assisted in this review by the input of a number of people. All are sincerely thanked for their time, original ideas and reviews of draft documents.

Don Ball


Rules

1. The Game

2. The Scoring

2.1 Points

2.2 Games and matches

3. The Warm-up

3.1 Start of a match

3.2 Warming up fairly

3.3 Warming up the ball during an interval

3.4 Warming up the ball after an interval

4. The Service

4.1 First server

4.2 Service box

4.3 Service action

4.4 Good service

4.4.1 Foot fault

4.4.2 Not up

4.4.3 Fault or Down

4.4.4 Fault

4.4.5 Out

4.5 Service not good and Marker Calls

4.6 Calling the score

5. The Play

6. Good Return

6.1 Striking the ball correctly

6.2 Ball must strike front wall

6.3 Ball not out

7. Continuity Of Play

7.1 Suspending play

7.2 Interval between games and after warm-up

7.3 Change of equipment (G1)

7.4 Referee calls relating to time-intervals

7.5 Injury, illness or disability

7.6 Delaying play (G2)

7.7 Fallen object (G3)

7.7.1 Referee stops play

7.7.2 Player appeal

7.7.3 Player drops object

7.7.4 Object dropped by non-player

7.7.5 Winning return

7.7.6 Dropped object not noticed

7.8 Dropped racquet

8. Winning A Rally

8.1 Service not good

8.2 Return not good

8.3 Ball touches non-striker (G4)

8.4 Referee awards stroke

9. Ball Hitting The Opponent And Player Turning

9.1 Striker hits ball - play ceases (G4)

9.1.1 Stroke to striker unless 9.1.2, 9.1.3

9.1.2 Turning - stroke to opponent (G4, G5)

9.1.3 Further attempt - let (G5)

9.1.4 Side or back wall first - let unless 9.1.5

9.1.5 Winning return - stroke to striker

9.1.6 Return not good - stroke to opponent

9.2 Turning

9.2.1 Fear of hitting opponent

9.2.1.1 Let

9.2.1.2 Good return not possible, no let

9.2.2 Interference on turning

9.2.2.1 Let if striker obstructed

9.2.2.2 Stroke, interference not avoided

9.2.2.3 Let not allowed - striker unable to make good return

9.2.3 Unnecessary turning

10. Further Attempts To Hit The Ball

10.1 Ball touches opponent

10.1.1 Let - good return possible

10.1.2 Stroke to opponent - good return not possible

10.2 Let if further attempt hits opponent

10.3 Interference on further attempt

10.3.1 Let provided good return possible

10.3.2 Stroke to striker - opponent interference not avoided

10.3.3 No let if further attempt would not be good

11. Appeals

11.1 On service

11.1.1 Server appeal

11.1.2 Marker non-call - receiver appeal

11.1.2.1 Service good - stroke to server

11.1.2.2 Referee uncertain - let

11.2 On play other than service

11.2.1 Player appeal on Marker`s call

11.2.1.1 Let unless 11.2.1.2 or 11.2.1.3

11.2.1.2 Stroke to player if Marker`s call interrupts player`s winning return

11.2.1.3 Stroke to opponent if Marker`s call interrupts opponent`s winning return

11.2.2 Appeal for Marker failing to call

11.2.2.1 Return good - stroke to striker

11.2.2.2 Referee uncertain - let

11.3 Appeal after service for prior occurrence

11.4 Multiple appeals

11.5 Service called, subsequently down or out

11.6 Subsequent shot down or out - Referee ruling

12. Interference

12.1 Player freedom from interference

12.2 Player freedoms defined

12.2.1 Direct access (G6)

12.2.2 Fair view

12.2.3 Freedom to hit (G7)

12.2.4 Freedom to play to the front wall

12.3 Interference defined

12.4 Excessive swing contributes to interference

12.5 Player appeal

12.5.1 Method of appeal "let please" (G8)

12.5.2 Player appeal and timing (G9, G10)

12. Interference (continued top of next column)

12.6 Referee action

12.7 No let

12.7.1 No and minimal interference (G6)

12.7.2 Good return not possible or insufficient effort (G6)

12.7.3 Played on past point of interference

12.7.4 Created interference (G11)

12.8 Stroke award

12.8.1 Interference, opponent effort insufficient

12.8.2 Interference, opponent made every effort but position prevents swing

12.8.3 Interference, opponent made every effort, winning return prevented (G7)

12.8.4 Interference, player refrains from hitting the next return

12.9 Let allowed

12.10 Stroke not awarded if swing excessive

12.11 Let or stroke without appeal

12.12 Applying Rule 17 for interference

12.12.1 Physical contact (G12)

12.12.2 Dangerous excessive swing

13. Lets

13.1 Referee may allow let

13.1.1 Ball touches article on court

13.1.2 Shot held - fear of hitting opponent (G7)

13.1.3 Distraction

13.1.4 Court conditions change

13.2 Referee shall allow let

13.2.1 Receiver not ready

13.2.2 Ball breaks in play

13.2.3 Referee uncertain of appeal

13.2.4 Good return lodges in court

13.3 Conditions for Referee allowing lets.

13.4 Conditions for allowing a let even if striker attempts to hit

13.5 Appeal requirements

13.5.1 Player appeal necessary

13.5.2 Player appeal or Referee intervention

14. The Ball

14.1 Substituting another ball

14.2 Ball breaks

14.3 Ball breaks without being noticed

14.3.1 Receiver appeals (G13)

14.4 Appeal on final rally of game

14.5 Player stops play to appeal

14.6 Ball remains on court

14.7 Warm-up after substitution

15. Duties Of The Players

15.1 Observe rules and spirit of the game

15.2 Ready to commence play

15.3 Not permitted placing articles within court

15.4 Not permitted leaving the court

15.5 Not permitted request change of officials

15.6 Deliberate distraction not allowed

15.7 Player`s method of appeal

15.8 Players complying with all regulations

16. Bleeding, Illness, Disability and Injury (G14)

16.1 Bleeding

16.1.1 Recurrence of bleeding

16.2 Illness or disability options

16.2.1 Resume play

16.2.2 Concede game

16.2.3 Concede match

16.3 Injury

16.3.1 Referee action

16.3.1.1 Self-inflicted

16.3.1.2 Contributed

16.3.1.3 Opponent-inflicted

16.3.2 Injury with bleeding Rule 16.1 applies

16.3.3 Decisions for injury without bleeding

16.3.3.1 Self-inflicted

16.3.3.2 Contributed

16.3.3.3 Opponent-inflicted

16.4 Injured player resuming play early

16.5 Referee disallows claim of injury

16.6 Player conceding game

17. Conduct On Court

17.1 Referee required action

17.2 Offences (G15)

17.3 Referee applied penalties (G16)

17.3.1 Conduct Warning - let

17.3.2 Conduct Stroke

17.3.3 Conduct Stroke between rallies

17.3.4 Conduct Game

18. Control Of A Match

18.1 The Number of Officials (G17)

18.2 Officiating position

19. Duties Of A Marker

19.1 Calls (G18)

19.2 Calling the score without delay

19.3 After Marker calls, rally stops

19.4 Marker unsighted

19.5 Play stops without Marker calling

19.6 Marker keeps written record

20. Duties Of A Referee (G19)

20.1 Decide and announce all appeals

20.2 Referee control

20.2.1 Player appeals

20.2.2 Rules applied correctly

20.2.3 Crowd control

20.3 Referee intervention in calling the score

20.4 Referee intervention in calling the play

20.5 Time responsibility

20.6 Referee keeps a written record

20.7 Court condition responsibility

20.8 Awarding match player not present

Appendix 1 Official Guidelines Appendix 2 - 8
G1 Change of Equipment

G2 Time-Wasting

G3 Fallen Object

G4 Player Hit by the Ball, including Turning and Further Attempt

G5 Interference on Turning or Further Attempt

G6 Making Every Effort and Minimal Interference

G7 Interference with the Swing and Reasonable Fear of Hitting Opponent

G8 Method of Appeal

G9 Timing of Appeals

G10 Early Appeal

G11 Created Interference

G12 Significant or Deliberate Physical contact

G13 Broken Ball

G14 Bleeding, Illness, Disability or Injury

G15 Coaching

G16 Progression of Penalties

G17 Single Official

G18 Marker`s Guidelines

G19 Referee`s Guidelines

Appendix 2 Definitions

Appendix 3 Standard Calls

Appendix 3.1 Marker`s Calls

Appendix 3.2 Referee`s Calls

Appendix 4 Flowcharts

Appendix 4.1 Referee`s Line of thinking for Rule 12

Appendix 4.2 Referee`s decisions for Rule 16

Appendix 5 Court and Equipment Specifications

Appendix 5.1 Court Dimensions

Appendix 5.2 Standard Ball

Appendix 5.3 Racquet Dimensions

Appendix 6 Protective Eyewear

Appendix 7 Point-a-Rally Scoring

Appendix 8 Experimentation

Appendix 8.1 Officiating Systems

Appendix 8.2 Experimental Rules

WORLD SQUASH SINGLES RULES 2001

NOTE

The use of the word "shall" in the rules indicates compulsion and the lack of any alternative. The word "must" indicates a required course of action with considerations to be taken into account if the action is not carried out. The word "may" indicates the option of carrying out or not carrying out the action.

Words or terms in italics are used with a specific meaning as defined in Appendix 2.

1. THE GAME

The game of Singles Squash is played between two players, each using a racquet, with a ball and in a court, all three of which meet WSF specifications (see Appendix 5).

2. THE SCORING

2.1 Only the server scores points. The server, on winning a rally, scores a point; the receiver, on winning a rally, becomes the server.

2.2 A match shall consist of the best of three or five games at the option of the organizers of the competition. The player who scores nine points wins the game, except that on the score reaching eight-all for the first time, the receiver shall choose, before the next service, to continue that game either to nine points (known as "Set one") or to ten points (known as "Set two"). In the latter case the player who scores two more points wins the game. The receiver shall clearly indicate this choice to the Marker, Referee and the opponent.

The Marker shall call "Set one" or "Set two" as applicable before play continues.

The Marker shall call "Game ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the game in progress or "Match ball" to indicate that the server requires one point to win the match.

3. THE WARM-UP (see definition in Appendix 2)

3.1 Immediately preceding the start of play both players shall be allowed onto the court of play for a period of five minutes to warm-up together.

After two and a half minutes of the warm-up, the Referee shall call "Half time" and the players shall change sides unless they have already done so. The Referee shall also advise the players when the warm-up period is complete with the call of "Time".

3.2 In the warm-up both players must have equal opportunities of striking the ball. A player retaining the strike for an unreasonable time is warming up unfairly. The Referee shall decide when the warm-up is unfair and apply Rule 17.

3.3 Either player may warm the ball up during any interval.

3.4 The players may warm the ball up to playing condition after any interval at the discretion of the Referee.

4. THE SERVICE

4.1 Play commences with a service and the spin of a racquet decides the right to serve first. Thereafter, the server continues to serve until losing a rally, whereupon the opponent becomes the server and this procedure continues throughout the match. At the commencement of the second and each subsequent game the winner of the previous game serves first.

4.2 At the beginning of each game and each hand the server shall choose from which box to serve and thereafter shall serve from alternate boxes while remaining the server. However, if a rally ends in a let, the server shall serve again from the same box.

If the server moves to the wrong box, or either player is uncertain of the correct box for serving, the Marker shall announce the correct box. The Referee shall rule on the correct box if the Marker is uncertain or incorrect, or there is a dispute.

4.3 To serve, a player shall release the ball from either a hand or the racquet and then strike it. Should the player make no attempt to strike it after that release, the player shall release the ball again for that service.

4.4 A service is good if all the conditions in Rules 4.4.1 - 4.4.5 are met:

4.4.1 the server has part of one foot in contact with the floor within the service box without any part of that foot touching the service box line (part of that foot may project over this line if it does not touch the line) at the time of striking the ball;

4.4.2 the server, after releasing the ball for service, strikes it correctly on the first or further attempt before the ball falls to the floor, touches a wall, or touches anything the server wears;

4.4.3 the server strikes the ball directly onto the front wall between the service and out lines;

4.4.4 unless volleyed by the receiver, the first bounce of the ball on the floor is in the quarter court opposite the server`s box without touching the short or half court lines;

4.4.5 the server does not serve the ball out.

4.5 A service which does not meet the requirements of Rules 4.4.1 - 4.4.5 is not good and the Marker shall make the appropriate call.

The calls are:

"foot-fault" for Rule 4.4.1

"not up" for Rule 4.4.2

"fault" for Rule 4.4.3 if the ball strikes a side wall first or the front wall on or below the service line but above the board

"down" for Rule 4.4.3 if the ball strikes on or below the board or on the floor

"fault" for Rule 4.4.4

"out" for Rule 4.4.5

A service in which the ball is considered to have struck the front wall and a side wall simultaneously is not good and is called "fault".

4.6 The server must not serve until the Marker has completed calling the score. The Marker must call the score without delay. If the server serves or attempts to serve prior to the Marker completing the calling of the score, the Referee shall stop play and require the server to wait until the Marker has completed calling the score.

5. THE PLAY

After the server delivers a good service, the players return the ball alternately until one fails to make a good return, the ball otherwise ceases to be in play in accordance with the rules, a player appeals, or the Marker or Referee makes a call.

6. GOOD RETURN

A return is good if all the conditions in Rules 6.1 - 6.4 are met.

6.1 The striker returns the ball correctly before it has bounced twice on the floor.

6.2 The ball strikes the front wall above the board, either directly or via side wall(s) and/or the back wall, without first touching the floor or any part of the striker`s body or apparel, or the opponent`s racquet, body or apparel.

6.3 The ball is not out.

7. CONTINUITY OF PLAY

After the server delivers the first service, play shall be continuous so far as is practical. However,

7.1 at any time the Referee may suspend play owing to bad light or other circumstances beyond the control of the players and officials, for such period as the Referee shall decide. The score shall stand. If another court is available and the original court remains unsuitable for play, the Referee may transfer the match to it.

7.2 There shall be a 90-second interval between the end of the warm-up and the commencement of the first game and between all games. Players may leave the court during these intervals but must be ready to play prior to the expiry of the 90-second interval.

By mutual consent of the players, play may commence or resume prior to the expiry of the 90-second interval.

(G1) 7.3 If a player satisfies the Referee that a change of equipment, clothing or footwear is necessary, the player may leave the court to effect the change as quickly as possible but must do so within 90 seconds.

7.4 When 15 seconds of a permitted 90-second interval remain the Referee shall call "Fifteen seconds" to advise the players to be ready to resume play. At the end of 90 seconds the Referee shall call "Time".

It is the responsibility of the players to be in a position to hear the calls of "Fifteen seconds" and "Time".

Should one or both players not be ready to resume play when "Time" is called, the Referee shall apply Rule 17.

7.5 If a player is injured, ill or disabled the Referee shall apply Rule 16.

(G2) 7.6 The Referee, on deciding that a player has delayed play unreasonably, shall apply Rule 17.

(G3) 7.7 If an object, other than a player`s racquet, falls to the floor of the court while a rally is in progress the requirements are:

7.7.1 the Referee, on becoming aware of a fallen object, shall stop play immediately;

7.7.2 a player becoming aware of a fallen object may stop play and appeal.

7.7.3 If the object falls from a player, that player shall lose the rally, unless Rule 7.7.5 applies or the cause is a collision with the opponent. In the latter case the Referee shall allow a let, unless the player appeals for a let because of interference in which case the Referee shall apply Rule 12.

7.7.4 If the object falls from a source other than a player, the Referee shall allow a let unless Rule 7.7.5 applies.

7.7.5 If the player has already made a winning return when the object falls to the floor, that player shall win the rally.

7.7.6 If a dropped object remains unnoticed until the end of the rally, the result of the rally shall stand.

(G3) 7.8 If a player drops a racquet, the Referee shall allow the rally to continue, unless interference occurred (Rule 12), the ball touched the racquet (Rule 13.1.1), distraction occurred (Rule 13.1.3), or the Referee applies a conduct penalty (Rule 17).

8. WINNING A RALLY

A player wins a rally if:

8.1 the opponent fails to deliver a good service (Rule 4.4);

8.2 the opponent fails to make a good return (Rule 6), unless the Referee allows a let or awards a stroke to the opponent;

(G4) 8.3 the ball touches the opponent (including anything worn or carried), without interference, when the opponent is the non-striker, except as is otherwise provided for in Rules 9 and 10. If interference occurs then the provisions of Rule 12 apply. In all cases the Referee shall make the decision;

8.4 the Referee awards a stroke to the player as provided for in the Rules.

9. BALL HITTING THE OPPONENT AND A PLAYER TURNING

(G4) 9.1 If the striker hits the ball which, before reaching the front wall, hits the opponent (including anything worn or carried), play shall cease. The Referee, in addition to considering possible infringement of Rule 17, shall assess the ball`s trajectory and shall:

9.1.1 award a stroke to the striker if the return would have been good and the ball would have struck the front wall without first touching any other wall, unless Rule 9.1.2 or 9.1.3 applies;

(G4) (G5) 9.1.2 if the striker turned, award a stroke to the opponent, unless the opponent made a deliberate movement to intercept the return, in which case the Referee shall award the stroke to the striker;

(G5) 9.1.3 if the striker`s return is a further attempt, allow a let, provided that Rule 9.1.2 does not apply;

9.1.4 allow a let if the ball either had struck or would have struck any other wall before the front wall and the return would have been good, unless Rule 9.1.5 applies;

9.1.5 if deciding the return would have been a winning return, award a stroke to the striker;

9.1.6 award a stroke to the opponent if the return would not have been good.

(G5) 9.2 If the striker turns:

9.2.1 the striker may, before striking the ball, out of fear of hitting the opponent with the ball, stop and appeal. The Referee shall:

9.2.1.1 allow a let, if deciding that there was a reasonable fear of the ball hitting the opponent and the striker would have been able to make a good return unless Rule 9.2.3 applies or

9.2.1.2 not allow a let, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good return.

9.2.2. The striker may, because of interference, stop play and appeal. The Referee shall:

9.2.2.1 allow a let, if deciding that the striker is unable to complete an attempt to play the ball because of interference by the opponent or

9.2.2.2 award a stroke to the striker, if deciding that the opponent did not make every effort to avoid the interference on turning, or

9.2.2.3 not allow a let, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good return regardless of the interference.

9.2.3 The Referee shall not allow a let if deciding that the act of turning was to create the opportunity to appeal rather than an attempt to return the ball.

10. FURTHER ATTEMPTS TO HIT THE BALL

If the striker attempts to strike the ball and misses, the striker may make further attempts.

10.1 If, after being missed, the ball touches the opponent (including anything worn or carried), the Referee shall:

10.1.1 allow a let, if deciding that the striker could otherwise have made a good return, or

10.1.2 award a stroke to the opponent, if deciding that the striker could not have made a good return.

10.2 The Referee shall allow a let if any such further attempt is successful but results in a good return being prevented from reaching the front wall by hitting the opponent, including anything worn or carried.

10.3 The striker may, because of interference on the further attempt, stop play and appeal. The Referee shall:

10.3.1 allow a let, if the striker is unable to complete a further attempt to play the ball provided a good return was possible; or

10.3.2 award a stroke to the striker, if deciding that the opponent did not make every effort to avoid the interference on the further attempt; or

10.3.3 not allow a let, if deciding that the further attempt would not have resulted in a good return.

11. APPEALS

The loser of a rally may appeal against any decision of the Marker affecting that rally.

A player should preface any appeal under Rule 11 by saying "Appeal please". Play ceases when a player appeals. The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.

If the Referee disallows an appeal under Rule 11, the Marker`s decision shall stand. If uncertain, the Referee shall allow a let, except where the provisions of Rules 11.2.1, 11.5 or 11.6 apply.

Appeals and Referee interventions in specific situations are dealt with below (see also Rule 20.4).

11.1 Appeals on Service.

11.1.1 If the Marker makes a call of "Foot-fault", "Fault", "Not up", "Down" or "Out" to the service, the server may appeal. If the Referee upholds the appeal, the Referee shall allow a let.

11.1.2 If, after the service, the Marker makes no call, the receiver may appeal, either immediately or at the end of the rally. The Referee, if certain that the service was not good, shall, without waiting for an appeal, stop play and award a stroke to the opponent. In response to an appeal the Referee shall:

11.1.2.1 if certain the service was good, award a stroke to the server.

11.1.2.2 if uncertain, allow a let.

11.2 Appeals on Play other than Service.

11.2.1 A player may appeal if the Marker calls "Not up", "Down" or "Out" following that player`s return. The Referee, if upholding the appeal or uncertain whether the Marker`s call was correct, shall:

11.2.1.1 allow a let, unless Rule 11.2.1.2 or 11.2.1.3 apply;

11.2.1.2 award a stroke to the player, if the Marker`s call interrupted that player`s winning return;

11.2.1.3 award a stroke to the opponent, if the Marker`s call has interrupted or prevented a winning return by the opponent.

11.2.2 If the Marker fails to call "Not up", "Down" or "Out" following a player`s return, the opponent may appeal either immediately or at the end of the rally. The Referee, if certain that the return was not good, shall, without waiting for an appeal, stop play and award a stroke to the opponent. In response to an appeal the Referee shall:

11.2.2.1 if deciding the return was good, award a stroke to the player;

11.2.2.2 if uncertain, allow a let.

11.3 After the delivery of a service neither player may appeal for anything which occurred before that service, except as Rule 14.3 provides.

11.4 When the loser makes more than one appeal concerning a rally, the Referee shall consider each appeal.

11.5 If a player appeals the Marker`s call of "Foot-fault", "Fault", "Not up", "Down" or "Out" to a service but that same service subsequently is clearly a fault, not up, down or out, the Referee shall rule only on the subsequent occurrence.

11.6 If a player appeals the Marker`s call of "Not up", "Down" or "Out" to a return but that same return subsequently is clearly down or out, the Referee shall rule only on the subsequent occurrence.

12. INTERFERENCE

12.1 The player whose turn it is to play the ball is entitled to freedom from interference by the opponent.

12.2 To avoid interference the opponent must make every effort to provide the player with:

(G6) 12.2.1 unobstructed direct access to the ball after completion of a reasonable follow-through;

12.2.2 a fair view of the ball on its rebound from the front wall;

(G7) 12.2.3 freedom to hit the ball with a reasonable swing;

12.2.4 freedom to play the ball directly to any part of the front wall.

12.3 Interference occurs if the opponent fails to fulfil any of the requirements of Rule 12.2, even though the opponent makes every effort to fulfil those requirements.

12.4 A player`s excessive swing can contribute to interference for the opponent when it becomes the latter`s turn to play the ball.

12.5 A player encountering possible interference has the choice of continuing to play or of stopping and appealing to the Referee.

(G8) 12.5.1 A player seeking a let or a stroke should appeal by saying "Let please".

(G9) (G10) 12.5.2 Only the player whose turn it is to play the ball may appeal. The player must appeal either immediately the interference occurs or, when clearly not continuing play beyond the point of interference, without undue delay.

12.6 The Referee shall decide on the appeal and shall announce the decision with the words "No let", "Stroke to (name of player or team)", or "Yes let" (see flowchart in Appendix 4.1). The Referee alone makes all decisions, which are final. The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.

12.7 The Referee shall not allow a let and the player shall lose the rally if the Referee decides:

(G6) 12.7.1 there was no interference or the interference was so minimal that the player`s fair view of the ball and freedom to get to and play the ball were not affected;

(G6) 12.7.2 interference occurred but either the player would not have made a good return or the player has not made every effort to get to and play the ball;

12.7.3 the player moved past the point of interference and played on;

(G11) 12.7.4 the player created the interference in moving to the ball.

12.8 The Referee shall award a stroke to the player if:

12.8.1 there was interference, which the opponent did not make every effort to avoid, and the player would have made a good return;

(G7) 12.8.2 there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, but the opponent`s position prevented the player`s reasonable swing and the player would have been able to make a good return;

(G7) 12.8.3 there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, and the player would have made a winning return;

12.8.4 the player refrained from hitting the ball which, if hit, would clearly have struck the opponent going directly to the front wall; or to a side wall but in the latter case would have been a winning return (unless in either case turning or further attempt applies).

12.9 The Referee shall allow a let if there was interference, which the opponent made every effort to avoid, and the player would have made a good return.

12.10 The Referee shall not award a stroke to a player who causes interference with an excessive swing.

12.11 The Referee may allow a let under Rule 12.9 or award a stroke under Rule 12.8 without an appeal, if necessary stopping play to do so.

12.12 The Referee may also apply Rule 17 when interference occurs. The Referee shall, stopping play if it has not already stopped, apply an appropriate penalty if:

(G12) 12.12.1 the player made significant or deliberate physical contact with the opponent;

12.12.2 the player endangered the opponent with an excessive swing.

13. LETS

In addition to lets allowed under other rules, the Referee may or shall allow lets in certain other cases. A player should request a let by saying "Let please". The Referee, if uncertain of the reason for an appeal, may ask the player for an explanation.

13.1 The Referee may allow a let if:

13.1.1 the ball in play touches any article lying on the floor (see Rule 15.3);

(G7) 13.1.2 the striker refrains from hitting the ball onto any of the walls including the back wall owing to a reasonable fear of injuring the opponent;

13.1.3 the Referee determines that an occurrence on or off the court distracted either player. A player appealing for distraction must do so immediately the distraction occurs. Notwithstanding the above the Referee may award a stroke to a player who has been distracted if that player could have played a winning return but for the distraction;

13.1.4 the Referee determines that a change in court conditions affected the result of the rally.

13.2 The Referee shall allow a let if:

13.2.1 the receiver is not ready and does not attempt to return the service;

13.2.2 the ball breaks during play;

13.2.3 the Referee is unable to decide an appeal;

13.2.4 a player makes an otherwise good return but either the ball lodges in any part of the playing surface of the court, preventing it from bouncing more than once on the floor, or the ball goes out after its first bounce.

13.3 If the striker appeals for a let under Rules 13.1.1 to 13.1.4, the Referee shall allow a let only if the striker can make a good return. For a non-striker appeal under Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.3 and 13.1.4 this is not a requirement.

13.4 If the striker attempts to play the ball, the Referee may still allow a let under Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.3, 13.1.4 and 13.2.2.

13.5 The appeals requirements of Rule 13 are:

13.5.1 a player`s appeal is necessary for the Referee to allow a let under Rules 13.1.2 (striker only), 13.1.3, 13.2.1 (receiver only) and 13.2.3;

13.5.2 a player`s appeal or Referee intervention without appeal is applicable to Rules 13.1.1, 13.1.4, 13.2.2 and 13.2.4.

14. THE BALL

14.1 At any time, when the ball is not in actual play, either player or the Referee may examine the ball. The Referee may substitute another ball by mutual consent of the players, or on appeal by either player.

14.2 If a ball breaks during play, the Referee, after confirming it is broken, shall replace it promptly with another ball.

14.3 If the ball breaks during play without being noticed during the rally, the Referee shall allow a let for the rally in which the ball broke, if the server appeals prior to the next service or if the receiver appeals prior to attempting to return that service.

(G13) 14.3.1 If the receiver appeals prior to attempting to return service and the Referee decides the ball broke during that service, the Referee shall allow a let for that rally only, but if uncertain shall allow a let for the previous rally.

14.4 The provisions of Rule 14.3 do not apply to the final rally of a game. In that case a player must appeal immediately after the rally.

14.5 If a player stops during a rally to appeal that the ball is broken, only to find subsequently that the ball is not broken, then that player shall lose the rally.

14.6 The ball shall remain within the court at all times, unless the Referee permits its removal.

14.7 When the Referee has substituted another ball or when the players resume a match after some delay, the Referee shall allow the players to warm the ball to playing condition. Play shall then resume on the direction of the Referee, or by mutual consent of the players, whichever is earlier.

15. Duties of the players

15.1 The players must observe all the Rules and the spirit of the game. Failure to do so could bring the game into disrepute and Rule 17 may be applied.

15.2 Players must be ready to commence play at the announced starting time of the match.

15.3 Players are not permitted to place within the court any object(s), clothing or equipment.

15.4 Players are not permitted to leave the court during a game without the permission of the Referee. If they do the Referee may apply Rule 17.

15.5 Players are not permitted to request a change of Marker or Referee.

15.6 A player must not deliberately distract the opponent. If this occurs the Referee shall apply Rule 17.

15.7 Players should preface appeals by saying "Let please" or "Appeal please" according to the circumstances. Pointing with the finger or racquet, other gestures, raised eyebrows or other eye activity are not universally recognized methods of appeal.

15.8 Players must comply with any additional competition regulations (e.g., the clothing requirements of the tournament), as well as those contained in the Rules.

(G14) 16. BLEEDING, ILLNESS, DISABILITY AND INJURY (see flowchart in Appendix 4.2)

16.1 Bleeding: The Referee shall immediately stop play when any player has visible bleeding, an open wound or blood-stained clothing. Before allowing play to continue the Referee shall require that the bleeding be stopped, the wound covered and any blood-stained clothing changed, allowing such time as is reasonable and necessary and is available on the tournament schedule.

If the bleeding was caused solely by the opponent, the Referee shall immediately award the match to the player.

16.1.1 Recurrence of bleeding: If the bleeding recurs, for which recovery time has already been allowed, the Referee shall allow no further recovery time except that the player may concede the game in progress and use the 90-second interval between games for recovery. If the visible bleeding continues at the end of this 90-second interval the player shall concede the match. A player may only concede one game for one 90-second interval.

If the covering of the bleeding wound falls off or is removed during the match, thereby exposing the wound, the Referee shall consider this to be a recurrence of the bleeding, unless all sign of bleeding has ceased.

16.2 Illness or Disability: A player suffering illness or disability not involving bleeding has the following options:

16.2.1 resuming play without delay;

16.2.2 conceding the game in progress, accepting the 90-second interval, or

16.2.3 conceding the match.

Symptoms of tiredness, alleged illness, or disability not reasonably evident to the Referee, or recurrence of pre-existing ailments, including injuries sustained earlier in the match, shall be dealt with under this Rule 16.2. This includes cramps of any kind, actual or impending nausea and breathlessness, including asthma. The Referee shall inform the players of the decision and the requirements of the rules.

16.3 Injury:

16.3.1 If a player claims that an injury has occurred, the Referee must be satisfied that the injury is genuine and, if so, decide the category of injury, informing the players of the decision and of the requirements of the rules. The player is only entitled to recovery time immediately after the injury occurred.

The categories are:

16.3.1.1 self-inflicted, where the opponent did not contribute to the injury;

16.3.1.2 contributed, where the opponent accidentally contributed to or accidentally caused the injury. The Referee shall not interpret the words "accidentally contributed to or accidentally caused by" to include the situation where a player is crowding the opponent;

16.3.1.3 opponent-inflicted, where the opponent solely caused the injury.

16.3.2 If the injury involves bleeding, Rule 16.1 shall apply until the bleeding has stopped. Subsequently Rule 16.3.3 applies.

16.3.3 If bleeding is not involved the following rules shall apply:

16.3.3.1 for a self-inflicted injury (Rule 16.3.1.1) the Referee shall allow 3 minutes for the injured player to recover. The Referee shall call "Time" at the end of the 3 minute period after giving a 15 second warning. If the player requests additional recovery time beyond 3 minutes, the Referee shall require the injured player to concede one game, accept the 90-second time interval between games and then resume play or concede the match. If the injured player has not returned to the court when "Time" is called, the Referee shall award the match to the opponent;

16.3.3.2 for a contributed injury (Rule 16.3.1.2) the Referee shall allow one hour for the injured player to recover and such additional time as the time-schedule of the competition permits. The Referee shall call "Time" at the end of any recovery time allowed. The injured player must, by the end of this period, resume play or concede the match. If the injured player resumes play, the score at the conclusion of the rally in which the injury occurred shall stand;

16.3.3.3 for an opponent-inflicted injury (Rule 16.3.1.3) the Referee shall apply Rule 17 and if the injured player requires time to recover, the Referee shall award the match to the injured player.

16.4 If an injured player, having been granted a period of recovery time, wishes to resume play prior to the expiry of that time, the Referee shall permit the opponent sufficient time to prepare to resume play.

16.5 If a player claims injury and the Referee is not satisfied that an injury has occurred, the Referee shall require the player to resume play; or concede one game, accept the time interval available and then either resume play or concede the match.

16.6 If conceding the game, the player shall retain any points already scored and at the conclusion of the 90-second interval between games shall either resume play or concede the match.

17. CONDUCT ON COURT

17.1 If the Referee considers that a player`s behaviour is disruptive, intimidating or offensive to the opponent, an official or a spectator, or could in any way bring the game into disrepute, the Referee shall penalize the player.

(G15) 17.2 Offences with which the Referee shall deal under this rule include audible and visible obscenities, verbal and physical abuse, dissent to Marker or Referee, abuse of racquet, ball or court and coaching, other than during the interval between games. Other offences include significant or deliberate physical contact (Rule 12.12.1), excessive racquet swing (Rule 12.4), unfair warm-up (Rule 3.2), late back on court (Rule 7.4), dangerous play or action (Rule 16.3.1.3) and time-wasting (Rule 7.6).

(G16) 17.3 The Referee shall apply one of the following penalties for these and any other offences.

Warning (called a Conduct Warning).

Stroke awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Stroke).

Game awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Game).

Match awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Match).

17.3.1 If the Referee stops play to give a Conduct Warning, the Referee shall allow a let.

17.3.2 During a rally, if an incident occurs warranting the award of a Conduct Stroke, the Referee shall stop play, if it has not already ceased, and award a stroke. Application of the Conduct Stroke becomes the result of the rally.

17.3.3 If the Referee awards a Conduct Stroke as a result of an incident between rallies, the result of the completed rally stands and the Conduct Stroke award is additional to the score but without further change of service box.

17.3.4 If the Referee awards a Conduct Game, that game shall be the one in progress or the next game if one is not in progress. In the latter case the interval between games shall not apply. The offending player shall retain any points already scored in the game awarded.

18. CONTROL OF A MATCH

(G17) 18.1 A Referee, assisted by a Marker, normally controls a match. Although the Referee may undertake the duties of the Marker as well, the WSF recommends that separate officials carry out the two roles.

18.2 The correct location for the Referee and Marker is at the centre of the back wall, as close to that wall as possible, above the out line on the back wall and preferably with seating.

19. DUTIES OF A MARKER

(G18) 19.1 The Marker shall call the play, followed by the score, with the server`s score called first. The Marker shall call services and returns which are not good using the recognized calls of "Fault", "Foot-fault", "Not up", "Down", "Out", "Hand-out" and "Stop" (see Appendix 3.1) as appropriate and shall repeat the Referee`s decisions.

19.2 At the end of the rally the Marker shall call the score without delay and after the Referee has decided any appeals.

19.3 If the Marker makes a call, the rally shall cease.

19.4 The Marker, if unsighted or uncertain, shall make no call.

19.5 If play ceases without the Marker having made a call, the Marker, if unsighted or uncertain, shall advise the players and the Referee shall make the relevant decision. If also uncertain, the Referee shall allow a let.

19.6 The Marker shall keep a written record of the score and the correct side for service.

(G19) 20. DUTIES OF A REFEREE

20.1 The Referee shall rule on all appeals, make decisions where the Rules call for them and shall decide all appeals against the Marker`s calls or lack of calls. The decision of the Referee shall be final.

The Referee must announce all decisions to the players on the court and must make all calls in a voice loud enough to be heard on the court and in the gallery.

20.2 The Referee shall exercise control:

20.2.1 when one of the players appeals, including an appeal against any specification;

20.2.2 to ensure that all relevant rules are applied correctly;

20.2.3 when the behaviour of any spectator, official, manager or coach is disruptive to the play or offensive to the players, officials or spectators. The Referee shall suspend play until the disruption has ceased and, if necessary, shall require the offending person(s) to leave the court area.

20.3 The Referee shall not intervene in the Marker`s calling of the score unless the Referee decides that the Marker has called the score incorrectly. In that case the Referee shall correct the score and the Marker shall repeat the corrected score.

20.4 The Referee shall not intervene in the Marker`s calling of the play unless the Referee decides that the Marker has made an error in stopping play or allowing play to continue, in which case the Referee shall immediately rule accordingly.

20.5 The Referee shall enforce all Rules relating to time.

20.6 The Referee shall keep a written record of the score and the correct side for service.

20.7 The Referee is responsible for ensuring that court conditions are satisfactory for play.

20.8 The Referee may award a match to a player whose opponent is not present on court, ready to play, within ten minutes after the announced time of play.

APPENDIX 1. GUIDELINES ON RULES INTERPRETATIONS

INTRODUCTION

The over-riding principle governing the Rules of Squash and their interpretation is to allow a fair result to each match. This requires that the Referee implement the rules fairly for both players throughout the match.

The Guidelines should be read in conjunction with the Rules and have been approved by the World Squash Federation.

G1. CHANGE OF EQUIPMENT

In order to prevent one player from gaining an unfair rest interval through a change of equipment, the Referee, before allowing a player to leave the court to make the change, shall be satisfied that there has indeed been a material deterioration of the equipment.

The preference for another racquet, or a different pair of shoes where no physical deterioration is evident, is not sufficient reason for the player to change that equipment. The player may leave the court to effect the change as quickly as possible and must do so within 90 seconds.

If a player`s glasses break or a player loses a contact lens, that player is permitted 90 seconds, after which the player must resume play.

If a player is unable to resume play because of lack of alternative equipment, the Referee shall award the match to the opponent.

G2. TIME-WASTING

Time-wasting is an attempt by one player to gain an unfair advantage over the opponent. Prolonged discussion with the Referee and slow preparation to serve or receive service are examples. The Referee shall apply Rule 17 when this occurs.

While excessive ball-bouncing prior to service is time-wasting, it does not constitute serving the hand out.

Players should be aware that during the 90-second intervals, the Referee`s call of "Fifteen seconds" is advice for them to return to court. A player who is not ready to resume play on the call of "Time" is gaining an unfair advantage and the Referee shall apply Rule 17.

G3. FALLEN OBJECT

Rule 7.7 makes it clear that, if any object falls (or is thrown) to the floor of the court, play must cease. Since an injury may occur if a player treads on any object of significant size or texture, the Referee or Marker shall halt play with the word "Stop", or the player(s) may stop and appeal. If the fallen object is unnoticed by players and Officials until the end of the rally and the Referee judges there has been no effect on the outcome of the rally, the result of the rally shall stand (Rule 7.7.6).

Players are responsible for retaining their equipment. As a general rule, a player who drops or throws a piece of equipment will lose a stroke. Exceptions are equipment falling as a result of a collision when the Referee may allow a let or award a stroke depending on whether the player has hit a winning return. If the collision results in an appeal for interference, Rule 12 will take precedence.

If a player drops a racquet without colliding with the opponent, the Referee shall allow the rally to continue under most circumstances. It is considered that the player is already at a significant disadvantage, as the player must pick up the racquet to remain in the rally.

The Referee shall deal with a player`s deliberate dropping or throwing of an object to the floor of the court under Rule 17.

G4. PLAYER HIT BY THE BALL INCLUDING TURNING AND FURTHER ATTEMPT

If the ball hits the non-striker the Referee shall make a decision in all cases and the Marker`s call is not required until after the Referee has made this decision.

If the ball, coming from the front wall, hits the non-striker without interference occurring, the non-striker loses a stroke unless further attempt applies (Rule 10). The definition of "Attempt" makes it clear that even a fake swing of the racquet or feint at the ball is an attempt, but racquet preparation comprising only backswing with no racquet movement towards the ball is not an attempt.

Rules 9 and Rule 10 cover the various situations in which the ball going to the front wall hits the non-striker.

If the ball hits the striker (without interference) the striker loses the rally and the Marker shall call "Not up", because the striker has not struck the ball correctly. The Referee need not make a decision unless the Marker fails to make a call.

When the ball strikes either player and interference occurred, the Referee shall apply Rule 12.

In deciding to play the ball on turning, a player must ensure that the return will not hit the opponent. If the player does hit the opponent with the ball after turning, the Referee shall award a stroke to the opponent, unless the opponent made a deliberate movement to prevent a good return reaching the front wall, in which case the Referee shall award a stroke to the striker.

G5. INTERFERENCE ON TURNING OR A FURTHER ATTEMPT

When a player turns or makes a further attempt to play the ball, the opponent still has an obligation to make every effort to provide the player with freedom to sight the ball and to get to and play the ball as provided for in Rule 12. However, the act of turning or of recovering for a further attempt is often so quick that the opponent does not have a reasonable opportunity to clear before the interference occurs. In such cases, the Referee shall allow a let. Conversely, if the opponent had ample time to clear but made no effort to do so, or deliberately moved thereby creating the interference, the Referee shall award a stroke to the player.

When a player shapes to play the ball on one side and then brings the racquet across the body to take the ball on the other side, it is neither turning nor making a further attempt and, if interference occurs, Rule 12 applies. This position frequently occurs after the ball has hit the side wall and the front wall simultaneously and then rebounds into the middle of the court.

G6. MAKING EVERY EFFORT AND MINIMAL INTERFERENCE

The opponent must make every effort to clear the ball after playing a return. The opponent`s route should allow the player unobstructed direct access to the ball, provided the player has not moved in to play the ball so quickly as to block the opponent`s exit. In the latter case the Referee shall allow a let, unless the player could not have made a good return, in which case the Referee shall not allow a let.

However, it is equally important for the player to make every effort to get to and play the ball. If the player does not make every effort to get to and play the ball, that is a significant factor in the Referee`s assessment of whether or not that player could have reached the ball and made a good return.

The Referee shall decide the degree of effort that the player should make to demonstrate "making every effort". This does not give the player the right to abuse the opponent physically and the Referee shall penalize significant or deliberate physical contact under Rule 12 or Rule 17.

When a player appeals for a let, having encountered some interference, the Referee, when deciding that the interference had no effect on that player`s sighting of the ball and freedom to get to and play the ball, shall not allow a let. This is minimal interference and includes situations in which: the opponent crossed the flight of the ball very early in its trajectory from the front wall but still allowed the player time to sight the ball; the player brushed past the opponent on the way to the ball without affecting the player`s direct access; and the racquet swing brushed the opponent, the opponent`s clothing or racquet without affecting the racquet`s swing.

However, when interference has occurred, the Referee shall not refuse a let in situations in which the player was clearly making every effort (albeit short of physical contact with the opponent) to get to and play the ball and had demonstrated to the Referee the ability to reach the ball.

G7. Interference with the striker`s swing and reasonable fear of hitting the opponent

Rule 12.2.3 allows the striker "freedom to hit the ball with a reasonable swing". If the striker stops play because of the opponent not granting this freedom and appeals, the Referee shall consider following options:

1. If the opponent is too close and has prevented the striker`s reasonable swing and is hit or would have been hit with the racquet, the Referee shall award a stroke to the striker.

2. If the striker stops play as a result of slight racquet contact with the opponent, who is making every effort to clear, the Referee shall allow a let. This is different from the minimal interference described in G6. The amount of contact must be sufficient to affect the player`s swing, but insufficient to prevent it.

3. If the striker stops play for fear of hitting the opponent and the opponent, though close to, does not prevent the striker`s reasonable swing, the Referee shall allow a let under Rule 13.1.2 - reasonable fear of injury. As long as the opponent does not prevent a reasonable swing, a let is the appropriate decision.

4. If the striker stops play for fear of hitting the opponent and the opponent is well clear of the reasonable swing, the Referee shall not allow a let, as the striker has judged the opponent`s position incorrectly.

G8. METHOD OF APPEAL

The correct method of appeal when interference or Rule 13 instances have occurred is to say "Let please" and for other occurrences under Rule 11 is to say "Appeal please".

Players sometimes use other forms of appeal including a raised hand or racquet, especially when communication between players and Referee is difficult. A Referee accepting any form of appeal other than the standard "Let please" or "Appeal please" must be satisfied that the player is actually making an appeal.

G9. TIMING OF APPEALS

The timing of an appeal on interference is important.

In the case of an appeal concerning fair view and freedom to hit the ball directly to the front wall (commonly known as "crossing the flight"), the Referee shall consider the situation at the time the player could have hit the ball.

In the case of interference on backswing, the appeal must be immediate and before the player makes any attempt to play the ball. Any attempt to hit the ball after backswing interference has occurred indicates that the striker has accepted the interference and thus forfeits the right of appeal.

If there is interference in the act of playing the ball, which includes a reasonable backswing, hit and reasonable follow-through, an appeal is justified. The Referee shall consider whether the opponent was crowding and not allowing freedom to play the ball in deciding whether to allow a let or to award a stroke.

If a player appeals for not being ready to receive service, the Referee shall allow a let, unless deciding the player delayed play unnecessarily. In the latter case the Referee could apply Rule 17.

G10. EARLY APPEAL

If a player makes an appeal for interference before the result of the opponent`s return is known, this is regarded as an early appeal. If a player makes an early appeal and the opponent`s return subsequently goes down or out, the Referee shall allow the result of the rally to stand, the player winning the rally.

When the opponent appeals for a let for interference before the player has completed a reasonable follow through, this is also regarded as an early appeal. In this case the opponent has no right of appeal and the Referee shall not award a let.

G11. CREATED INTERFERENCE

At all times an opponent must allow the player unobstructed direct access to play the ball.

However, sometimes the situation arises in which the opponent has caused no interference (i.e., the opponent has clearly provided the required direct access) but the player takes an indirect route to the ball which takes the player towards, or very close to, the opponent`s position. The player then appeals for a let because of being "obstructed" in access to the ball.

If there is no genuine reason for this indirect route, the player has created the interference where none otherwise existed and, if the player appeals, the Referee shall not allow a let. Whether the player could make a good return is not a consideration - in order to remain in the rally the player must get to and play the ball.

This is different from two situations in which a player, in attempting to recover from a position of disadvantage, does not have direct access to the ball. In the first situation the player is "wrong-footed" and anticipates the opponent hitting the ball one way, starts moving that way, but having guessed wrongly, changes direction to find the opponent in the way. In this situation the Referee shall allow the player a let on appeal if the recovery is sufficient to demonstrate the player would have made a good return. In fact, if the opponent prevents the incoming player from playing a winning return, the Referee shall award a stroke to that player.

Secondly, if a player plays a poor return that gives the opponent a position of advantage, the Referee shall allow the player a let only if, in taking the direct line to the ball for the next return, the Referee determines that, but for the interference, that player would have been able to get to and play the ball.

G12. SIGNIFICANT OR DELIBERATE PHYSICAL CONTACT

Significant or deliberate physical contact is both detrimental to the game and potentially dangerous. In blatant cases the Referee shall stop the rally and award the appropriate penalty. Where the player "pushes off" the opponent and this has no significant effect on the opponent, the Referee shall allow the rally to continue and give a warning to that player at the end of the rally. Where there is a significant effect, the Referee shall stop play and apply Rule 17.

G13. BROKEN BALL

When the receiver, without attempting to return the service, appeals that the ball is broken, the Referee will normally allow a let for that rally. However, if the Referee considers that the ball broke in the previous rally, the Referee shall allow a let for the previous rally. This also applies if the service is not good.

G14. BLEEDING, ILLNESS, DISABILITY or INJURY

1. If a player has visible bleeding, the Referee shall require the player to leave the court immediately. The Referee shall not permit play to resume while the bleeding is visible. The Referee shall permit recovery time for bleeding according to Rule 16.1. A player, unable to stop bleeding within the total time the Referee permits, shall either concede one game to gain a further 90 seconds and then continue play without bleeding, or concede the match.

If a player`s clothing has become blood-stained as a result of the injury, the player shall change that clothing before resuming play.

If the bleeding recurs after recovery time has been allowed, the Referee shall allow no further recovery time, except that the player may concede the game in progress and use the interval between games to recover.

2. A player suffering illness or disability on court has the option, except where blood is visible, of completing the game in progress or of conceding that game or the match.

A player who does not wish to concede the match, but who requires recovery time or who needs to leave the court, shall concede the game. After informing the Referee, the player shall take the 90-second interval between games for recovery, then be ready to play; or concede the match. The player may concede only one game.

If a player vomits or otherwise makes the court unplayable, the Referee shall award the match to the opponent, irrespective of whether the sick player is able to resume play (Rule 17). The Referee`s decision with regard to court conditions is final.

In the case of symptoms of tiredness, alleged injuries not reasonably evident to the Referee or pre-existing ailments, the Referee shall not permit recovery time (except that the Referee shall allow the player concerned the option of conceding one game to take the 90-second interval between games and then resume play). Included in this category are cramps, whether abdominal pains or muscle cramps, actual or impending nausea and breathlessness including asthmatic conditions.

3. If a player is injured the Referee, after confirming that the injury is genuine, shall advise the players of the requirements of the Rules, inform the players of the category of the injury and shall ascertain the player`s intentions regarding a resumption of play.

When a player suffers a self-inflicted injury, i.e., an injury which clearly does not involve the opponent as described in Rule 16.3.1.1, the Referee shall allow the recovery time permitted in Rule 16.3.3.1. Such an injury could be the result of a blow, especially to the face or head, as a result of the player colliding with the walls or floor, or a possible muscle tear or sprained joint causing the player to stop suddenly.

It is the responsibility of the injured player to be back at the court when the Referee calls "Time", either to resume play, or to request an extension of recovery time, if required, in the case of an injury which is still bleeding. If the player is not present when "Time" is called the Referee shall award the match to the opponent.

The player shall make the decision to resume play. The Referee`s role is to decide whether an injury exists, to apply and monitor time-intervals and to apply the Rules when the total allocated recovery time has elapsed.

G15. COACHING

Coaching of players is permitted only during the interval between games. Coaching does not include brief comments of encouragement between rallies that clearly have no effect on the continuity of play. The Referee shall decide whether comments are permissible encouragement or improper coaching.

The use of external communication aids is prohibited.

The Referee may penalize coaching in any form during play by applying Rule 17 to the player being coached.

G16. PROGRESSION OF PENALTIES

The penalties available to the Referee under Rule 17 are:

Warning (called a Conduct Warning).

Stroke awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Stroke).

Game awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Game).

Match awarded to opponent (called a Conduct Match).

The guidelines for applying the penalties are as follows:

When the Referee imposes the first penalty for a particular offence, it should be a warning, stroke, game or match depending on the seriousness of the offence. However, any subsequent penalty for the same type of offence for the same player should not be less severe than the previous penalty for that offence. Thus the Referee may award more than one warning or stroke for the same type of offence if the Referee decides that the offence does not warrant a more severe penalty.

When issuing penalties the Referee shall use the following terminology:

Conduct warning (player or team`s name) for (Offence).

Conduct stroke (player or team`s name) for (Offence), stroke to (opponent or opposing team`s name).

Conduct game (player or team`s name) for (Offence), game to (opponent or opposing team`s name).

Conduct match (player or team`s name) for (Offence), match to (opponent or opposing team`s name).

The Marker shall repeat only that part of the Referee`s decision that affects the score.

G17. SINGLE OFFICIAL

If it is not possible to have two Officials for a match, a single Official acts as Marker and Referee. The Official calls the play and the score as Marker and answers appeals as Referee.

When there is a single Official, the decisions which the Referee normally makes directly - such as when the ball strikes a player or answering appeals under Rule 12 - present no problems. However, there are limitations in the appeals process related to the Marker`s decisions. Specifically a Marker making an affirmative call (e.g., "Out") is unlikely, as Referee, to reverse that decision on appeal. On the other hand, in the event of the Marker`s failure to call (e.g., a suspected service fault) an appeal may be worthwhile because the Referee`s response shall be either "Good" or "Uncertain". In the latter case the Referee shall allow a let.

G18. MARKER`S GUIDELINES

The Marker shall call services and returns that are not good as soon as they occur using the appropriate call, thereby stopping the rally.

The correct order of calls is:

1. Anything affecting the score.

2. The score with the server`s score always called first.

3. Comments on the score:

Examples are:

"Not up, hand-out, 4-3."

"Down, 8-all, set one, game ball."

"Out, 8-all, set two."

"Yes let, 3-4."

"No let, hand-out, 5-7."

"Stroke to Jones, 8-2, match ball."

"Foot fault, hand-out, love-all."

"Fault" (appeal by server, Referee uncertain). "Yes let, 8-3, game ball."

Match introduction:

"Smith serving, Jones receiving, best of 5 games, love-all."

End of a game:

"9-7, game to Smith. Smith leads one game to love."

"10-9, game to Smith. Smith leads two games to love."

"9-3, game to Jones. Smith leads two games to one."

"9-4, game to Jones, two games all."

"10-8, match to Smith, 9-7, 10-9, 3-9, 4-9, 10-8."

Start of subsequent game:

"Smith leads one game to love, love-all."

"Smith leads two games to one, Jones to serve, Love-all"

"Two games all, Smith to serve, love-all."

After award of Conduct penalty:

"Stroke to Smith, 7-2".

"9-7, game to Jones, two games all".

G19. REFEREE`S GUIDELINES

Addressing the players: Officials should use the player`s surname/family name, rather than the given name, when addressing players. This eliminates any appearance of familiarity that players or spectators could interpret as favouritism.

Explanations: Following an appeal by a player, the Referee normally gives the decision and play resumes. However, on some occasions, it may be appropriate to explain the decision to the players. In those cases the Referee may give a concise explanation following the decision. It is helpful to the players if the Referee uses the terminology of the appropriate rule when explaining a decision.

APPENDIX 2. DEFINITIONS

APPEAL A player`s request for the Referee to make a ruling. "Appeal" is used in two contexts: -

1) To request the Referee to allow a let, or award a stroke;

2) To request the Referee to review the Marker`s decision.

The correct form of appeal by a player is "Appeal please" or "Let please".

ATTEMPT The movement of the racquet from a backswing position towards the ball.
BOARD The lowest horizontal marking on the front wall, with the tin beneath it covering the full width of the court.
BOX (SERVICE) A square area in each quarter court bounded by part of the short line, part of the side wall and by two other lines and from within which the server serves.
COMPETITION A championship tournament, league or other competitive match.
CORRECTLY The ball being hit by the racquet, held in the hand, not more than once and without prolonged contact on the racquet.
CROWDING The situation of an opponent standing too close to the striker and not allowing freedom to play the ball.
DOWN The term used to indicate that an otherwise good service or return has struck the floor before reaching the front wall, or has struck the board or tin before striking the floor. ("Down" is also a Marker`s call).
GAME Part of a match, commencing with a service and concluding when one player`s score reaches nine or ten points in accordance with the rules.
GAME BALL The state of the score when the server requires one point to win the game in progress. ("Game ball" is also used as a Marker`s call).
HALF-COURT

LINE

A line on the floor parallel to the side walls, dividing that part of the court between the short line and the back wall into two equal parts and meeting the short line at its midpoint to form the "T".
HALF TIME The midpoint of the warm-up ("Half time" is also used as a Referee`s call).
HAND The period from the time a player becomes server until becoming receiver.
HANDOUT Condition when a change of server occurs. ("Hand-out" is also used as a Marker`s call to indicate that a change of server has occurred).
INTERVAL A time period prescribed by the Rules for a delay in play.
LET An undecided rally. If the Referee allows a let, neither player wins a stroke for that rally and the server shall serve again from the same box.
MATCH The complete contest between two players, commencing with the warm-up and concluding at the end of the final rally.
MATCH BALL The state of the score when the server requires one point to win the match. ("Match ball" is also used as a Marker`s call).
NOT UP The expression used to indicate that a player did not strike the ball in accordance with the Rules. "Not up" applies when either the player did not strike the ball correctly, or the ball bounced more than once on the floor before the striker hits it, or the ball touched the striker or anything worn or carried other than the racquet, or the server made one or more attempts to strike the ball but failed to do so. ("Not up" is also a Marker`s call).
OFFICIALS The Marker and the Referee.
OUT The term used to indicate that either the ball has struck the out line, or a wall above the out line, or the ceiling, or any fitting attached to the ceiling and/or the wall above the out line or the ball has passed through any fitting attached to the ceiling and/or the wall above the out line. In addition, on courts which are not fully enclosed, the ball has passed over the out line and out of the court without touching any wall or, if no out line is provided, passed over any wall and out of the court. ("Out" is also a Marker`s call).
OUT LINE A continuous line comprising the front wall line, both side wall lines and the back wall line and marking the top boundaries of the court.

Note: When a court is constructed without such a line, i.e., the walls comprise only the area used for play, or without part of such a line (e.g., a glass back wall) and the ball in play strikes part of the horizontal top surface of such a wall and deflects back into court, the ball is out. The Marker shall make the decision in the normal manner, subject to the player`s appeal to the Referee.

POINT A unit of the scoring system. The Marker adds one point to a player`s score when that player is the server and wins a rally or is awarded a stroke.
QUARTER
COURT
One of two equal parts of the court bounded by the short line, the back wall and the half court line.
RALLY A service only, or a service and any number of returns of the ball, ending when a player cannot make a good return, a player appeals, the Marker makes a call or the Referee stops play.
RELEASE A player`s action to drop or throw the ball from a hand or a racquet for service.
REASONABLE
BACKSWING
A player`s action to move the racquet away from the body to prepare for a swing towards the ball. A backswing is reasonable if it is not excessive. An excessive backswing is one in which the player`s racquet arm is extended towards a straight arm position and/or the racquet is extended with the shaft approximately horizontal. The Referee shall decide whether a backswing is reasonable or excessive.
REASONABLE
FOLLOW-
THROUGH
A player`s action continuing the movement of the racquet after it has contacted the ball. A follow-through is reasonable if it is not excessive. An excessive follow-through is one in which the player`s racquet arm is extended towards a straight arm position with the racquet also extended with the shaft horizontal, particularly when the extended position is maintained for other than a moment. An excessive follow-through is also one in which the arm extended towards a straight position takes a wider arc than the continued line of flight of the ball. The Referee shall decide whether a follow-through is reasonable or excessive.
REASONABLE
SWING
This consists of a reasonable backswing, strike at the ball and reasonable follow-through.
SERVICE A player`s action to put the ball into play at the commencement of a rally.
SERVICE LINE A line on the front wall between the board and the out line, extending the full width of the court.
SHAPING The preparation of the racquet prior to making an attempt.
SHORT LINE A line on the floor extending the full width of the court.
SPECIFIED The description given to balls, racquets and courts that meet existing WSF specifications.
STRIKER The player whose turn it is to hit the ball after it has rebounded from the front wall, or who is in the process of hitting the ball, or who - up to the point of the return reaching the front wall - has just hit the ball.
STROKE An award by the Referee which results in the player winning the rally, thereby scoring a point if serving or becoming the server if receiving.
TIN The area below the board, covering the full width of the court, which should be constructed of a material that makes a distinctive sound when struck by the ball.
TURNING
(TURNS,
TURNED)
The action of the striker when the ball is followed around and the striker physically turns, or the ball is allowed to pass around the striker who, in either case, strikes the ball to the right of the body after the ball has passed to the left (or vice-versa).
TOURNAMENT/

CHAMPIONSHIP

REFEREE

The person given overall responsibility for all marking and refereeing matters throughout the tournament, including the appointment and replacement of Officials to matches. (See WSF booklet "Guidelines for Tournament Referees" for a full description.)
WARM-UP The time allowed, immediately preceding the start of play, for the players to prepare themselves on the match court and to warm the ball to playing condition.

APPENDIX 3. STANDARD CALLS

APPENDIX 3.1. MARKER`S CALLS

The recognized Marker`s calls are defined below.

Calls made by the Marker as referred to in Rule 19 DUTIES OF A MARKER

FAULT To indicate that the service is a fault. See Rule 4.4.3 and Rule 4.4.4.
FOOT-FAULT To indicate that the service is a foot-fault. See Rule 4.4.1.
NOT UP To indicate that the player did not strike the ball in accordance with the Rules. (See Definition in Appendix 2).
DOWN To indicate that an otherwise good service or return has struck the floor before reaching the front wall or has struck the board or tin. (See Definition in Appendix 2).
OUT To indicate that an otherwise good service or return has gone out. (See Definition in Appendix 2).
HAND OUT To indicate that the server has become the receiver, i.e., a change of server has occurred. (See Definitions Appendix 2 ).
STOP To stop play as appropriate when the Referee has failed to do so and other calls are not relevant.

Calls made by the Marker as referred to in Rule 2 THE SCORING

4-3 An example of the score. The server`s score is always called first, thus in this example the server leads by four points to three. If points are equal the wording used is "all" (e.g., "love-all").
SET ONE To indicate that the game in progress is to be played to nine points after the score has reached 8-all (called once only in any game).
SET TWO To indicate that the game in progress is to be played to ten points after the score has reached 8-all (called once only in any game).
GAME BALL To indicate each time it occurs that the server requires one point to win the game in progress. See Definitions "GAME BALL".
MATCH BALL To indicate each time it occurs that the server requires one point to win the match. See Definitions "MATCH BALL".

Calls made by the Marker as referred to in Rule 19 CONTROL OF A MATCH (Repeating Referee Decisions).

YES LET, LET Repeating the Referee`s decision that a rally is to be replayed.
STROKE TO (PLAYER or TEAM NAME) Repeating the Referee`s decision to award a stroke to that player or team.
NO LET Repeating the Referee`s decision that an appeal for a let is disallowed.

APPENDIX 3.2. REFEREE`S CALLS

The recognized Referee`s calls are defined below

STOP To stop play.
TIME To indicate that a period of time prescribed in the rules has elapsed.
HALF TIME To advise players of the midpoint of the warm-up period.
YES LET When allowing a let, following a player`s appeal for a let.
NO LET When disallowing a player`s appeal for a let.
STROKE TO (PLAYER or TEAM) To advise that the player or team named is being awarded a stroke.
FIFTEEN SECONDS To advise the player(s) that fifteen seconds of a permitted interval remain.
LET To advise that a rally is to be replayed in circumstances where the wording "Yes let" is not applicable. May be accompanied by an explanation.
CONDUCT WARNING To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee is giving a warning.
CONDUCT STROKE To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee has awarded a stroke to the opponent.
CONDUCT GAME To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee has awarded a game to the opponent.
CONDUCT MATCH To advise a player of an offence committed under Rule 17 and that the Referee has awarded the match to the opponent.

APPENDIX 4. FLOWCHARTS

APPENDIX 4.1. Flowchart: Referee`s line of thinking for Rule 12. INTERFERENCE

Decision

Rule

Did interference occur?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

NO

NO LET

12.7.1

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) YES

Was the interference minimal?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

YES

NO LET

12.7.1

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) NO

Could the obstructed player have got to the ball and made a good return and was that player making every effort to do so?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

NO

NO LET

12.7.2

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) YES

Did the obstructed player move past the point of interference and play on?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

YES

NO LET

12.7.3

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) NO

Did the obstructed player create the interference in moving to the ball?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

YES

NO LET

12.7.4

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) NO

Did the opponent make every effort to avoid interference?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

NO

STROKE to player

12.8.1

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) YES

Did the interference prevent the player`s reasonable swing?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

YES

STROKE to player

12.8.2

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) NO

Could the obstructed player have made a winning return?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

YES

STROKE to player

12.8.3

arrowd.gif (329 bytes) NO

Would the obstructed player have struck the opponent with the ball going directly to the front wall or if going to a side wall would it have been a winning return?

arrowrrl.gif (357 bytes)

YES

STROKE to player

12.8.4

arrowrrc.gif (375 bytes)

NO

YES LET

12.9

APPENDIX 4.2. Flowchart: Referee`s decisions under Rule 16 BLEEDING, ILLNESS, DISABILITY or INJURY.

Incident

Referee action

Recovery time

Decision

Rule

Bleeding Stop play. Allow time to staunch bleeding, cover wound or change clothing. Allow play to continue, once bleeding stopped. Referee discretion Allot time 16.1
Bleeding recurrence Stop play. Award game and allow 90-second interval between games. None Award game to opponent. 16.1.1

arrowd.gif (329 bytes)

Bleeding unstoppable If after 90-second interval between games bleeding continues Referee awards the match. None Award match to opponent. 16.1.1
Illness or disability Require the player to play on, concede the game, taking the 90-second interval between games, or concede the match None directly Player decides 16.2
Injury Confirm injury is genuine. Decide category of injury, announcing this to players. Decide category 16.3
Either: Self-inflicted
Allow initial recovery time.

3 minutes

Allow time

16.3.3.1

arrowd.gif (329 bytes)

If additional recovery time is required, award that game to the opponent and allow 90-second interval. 90 sec Award game 16.3.3.1
Or: Contributed
Allow recovery time.

One hour

Allot time

16.3.3.2

arrowd.gif (329 bytes)

If additional time is required, consider tournament schedule. Referee discretion Allot time 16.3.3.2
Or: Opponent-inflicted
Apply Rule 17. If player unable to continue award the injured player the match.

None
Rule 17 penalty, award match
16.3.3.3

APPENDIX 5. COURT AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

APPENDIX 5.1. DESCRIPTION AND DIMENSIONS OF A SINGLES COURT

DESCRIPTION

A Squash Court is a rectangular box with four vertical walls of varying height; being the Front Wall, Side Walls and Back Wall. It has a level floor and a clear height above the court area.

DIMENSIONS

Length of court between playing surfaces 9750 mm

Width of court between playing surfaces 6400 mm

Diagonal 11665 mm

Height above floor to lower edge of Front Wall Line 4570 mm

Height above floor to lower edge of Back Wall Line 2130 mm

Height above floor to lower edge of Service Line on Front Wall 1780 mm

Height above floor to upper edge of Board 480 mm

Distance to nearest edge of Short Line from Back Wall 260 mm

Internal dimensions of Service Boxes 1600 mm

Width of all lines and the Board 50 mm

Minimum clear height above the floor of the court 5640 mm

NOTES

1. The Side Wall is angled between the Front Wall Line and the Back Wall Line.

2. The Service Box is a square formed by the Short Line, the Side Wall and two other lines marked on the floor.

3. The length, width and diagonal of the court are measured at a height of 1000 mm above the floor.

4. It is recommended that the Front Wall Line, Side Wall Line, Back Wall Line and Board are shaped so as to deflect any ball that strikes them.

5. The Board shall not project from the Front Wall by more than 45 mm.

6. It is recommended that the door to the court is in the centre of the Back Wall.

7. The general configuration of a Squash Court, its dimensions and its markings are illustrated on the diagram.

CONSTRUCTION

A Squash Court may be constructed from a number of materials providing they have suitable ball rebound characteristics and are safe for play; however, the WSF publishes a Squash Court Specification which contains recommended standards. The standards must be met for competitive play as required by the appropriate National Governing Body of Squash.

SQUASH COURT DIMENSIONS DIAGRAM

open diagram

APPENDIX 5.2. SPECIFICATIONS OF A STANDARD YELLOW DOT SQUASH BALL

The following specification is the standard for a yellow dot ball to be used under the Rules of Squash.

Diameter (millimetres) 40.0 + or - 0.5

Weight (grams) 24.0 + or - 1.0

Stiffness (N/mm) @ 23 degrees C. 3.2 + or - 0.4

Seam Strength (N/mm) 6.0 minimum

Rebound Resilience - from 100 inches/254 centimetres

@ 23 degrees C. 12% minimum

@ 45 degrees C. 26% - 33%

NOTES

1. The full procedure for testing balls to the above specification is available from the WSF. The WSF will arrange for testing of balls under standard procedures if requested.

2. No specifications are set for faster or slower speeds of ball, which may be used by players of greater or lesser ability or in court conditions which are hotter or colder than those used to determine the yellow dot specification. Where faster speeds of ball are produced they may vary from the diameter and weight in the above specification of a standard yellow dot squash ball. It is recommended that balls bear a permanent colour code or marking to indicate their speed or category of usage. It is also recommended that balls for beginners and improvers conform generally to the rebound resilience figures below.

Beginner Rebound resilience @ 23 degrees C not less than 17%

Rebound resilience @ 45 degrees C 36% to 38%

Improver Rebound resilience @ 23 degrees C not less than 15%

Rebound resilience @ 45 degrees C 33% to 36%

Specifications for balls currently fulfilling these requirements can be obtained from the WSF on request

The speed of balls may also be indicated as follows

Super slow - Yellow Dot

Slow - White Dot or Green Dot

Medium - Red Dot

Fast - Blue Dot

3. Yellow dot balls which are used at World Championships or at similar standards of play must meet the above specifications but additional subjective testing will be carried out by the WSF with players of the identified standard to determine the suitability of the nominated ball for Championship usage. The slowest speed of balls intended for elite players and Championship usage may if required be identified by a double yellow dot. Such balls will be deemed for the purposes of this specification to be yellow dot squash balls.

4. From 1 May 2001, yellow dot balls of a larger diameter than 40.0mm specified above, but which otherwise meet the specification, may be authorized for use in tournaments by the official organizing body.

APPENDIX 5.3. DIMENSIONS OF A SQUASH RACQUET

DIMENSIONS

Maximum length 686 mm

Maximum width, measured at right angles to the shaft 215 mm

Maximum length of strings 390 mm

Maximum strung area 500 sq. cm

Minimum width of any frame or any structural member (measured in plane of strings) 7 mm

Maximum depth of any frame or other structural member (measured at right angles to plane of strings) 26 mm

Minimum radius of outside curvature of frame at any point 50 mm

Minimum radius of curvature of any edge of frame or other structural member 2 mm

WEIGHT

Maximum weight 255 gm

CONSTRUCTION

a) The head of the racquet is defined as that part of the racquet containing or surrounding the strung area.

b) Strings and string ends must be recessed within the racquet head or, in cases where such recessing is impractical because of racquet material, or design, must be protected by a securely attached bumper strip.

c) The bumper strip must be made of a flexible material which cannot crease into sharp edges following abrasive contact with the floor or walls.

d) The bumper strip shall be of a white, colourless or unpigmented material. Where for cosmetic reasons a manufacturer chooses to use a colored bumper strip, then the manufacturer shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the WSF that this does not leave a colored deposit on the walls or floor of the court after contact.

e) The frame of the racquet shall be of a colour and/or material which will not mark the walls or floor following an impact in normal play.

f) Strings shall be gut, nylon or a substitute material, provided metal is not used.

g) Only two layers of strings shall be allowed and these shall be alternately interlaced or bonded where they cross and the string pattern shall be generally uniform and form a single plane over the racquet head.

h) Any grommets, string spacers or other devices attached to any part of the racquet shall be used solely to limit or prevent wear and tear or vibration and be reasonable in size and placement for such purpose. They shall not be attached to any part of the strings within the hitting area (defined as the area formed by overlapping strings).

i) There shall be no unstrung areas within the racquet construction such that will allow the passage of a sphere greater than 50mm in diameter.

j) The total racquet construction including the head shall be symmetrical about the centre of the racquet in a line drawn vertically through the head and shaft and when viewed face on.

k) All changes to the racquet specification will be subject to a notice period of two years before coming into force.

The World Squash Federation shall rule on the question of whether any racquet or prototype complies with the above specifications, or is otherwise approved or not approved for play and will issue guidelines to assist in the interpretation of the above.

APPENDIX 6. PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR

The WSF recommends that all Squash players should wear protective eye guards, manufactured to an appropriate National Standard, properly over the eyes at all times during play. It is the responsibility of the player to ensure that the quality of the product worn is satisfactory for the purpose.

As at October 2000 National Standards for Racquet Sport Eye Protection are published by the Canadian Standards Association, the United States ASTM, Standards Australia/New Zealand and British Standards Institution.

APPENDIX 7. POINT-A-RALLY SCORING

The standard scoring system described in Rule 2 The Scoring is the approved scoring system for singles Squash. If Point-a-Rally scoring (PARS) is used, the following text replaces Rule 2.

2. THE SCORING

2.1 Either player may score points. The server, on winning a stroke, scores a point and retains the service; the receiver, on winning a stroke, scores a point and becomes the server.

2.2 A match shall consist of the best of three or five games and each game shall be played to nine or fifteen points at the option of the organizers of the competition.

Where each game is to fifteen points, the player who scores fifteen points wins the game, except that on the score reaching fourteen-all the receiver shall choose, before the server delivers the next service, to continue that game either to fifteen points (known as "Set one") or to seventeen points (known as "Set three") In the latter case the player who scores three more points wins the game. The receiver shall in either case clearly indicate this choice to the Marker, Referee and the opponent.

Where each game is to nine points, the player who scores nine points wins the game, except that on the score reaching eight-all the receiver shall choose, before the server delivers the next service to continue that game either to nine points (known as "Set one") or to eleven points (known as "Set three"). In the latter case the player who scores three more points wins the game. The receiver shall in either case clearly indicate this choice to the Marker, Referee and the opponent.

The Marker shall call "Set one" or "Set three" as applicable before play continues.

The Marker shall call "Game ball" to indicate that either player requires one point to win the game in progress, "Match ball" to indicate that either player requires one point to win the match, "Match ball, game ball" if the server requires one point to win the match and the receiver requires one point to win the game in progress and "Game ball, match ball" if the server requires one point to win the game in progress and the receiver requires one point to win the match.

4. THE SERVICE

The spin of a racquet decides the right to serve or to receive first.

Note: The Marker`s use of the terms "Game ball", "Match ball", "Point" and "Stroke" must be adjusted to comply with the Point-a-Rally scoring system.

APPENDIX 8. EXPERIMENTATION

APPENDIX 8.1. EXPERIMENTAL OFFICIATING SYSTEMS

The World Squash Federation is evaluating an experimental officiating system to determine if it is a viable alternative to the standard Marker/Referee system described in Rule 18, Rule 19 and Rule 20.

The evaluation will continue through the validity of the 2001 rules.

The system is known as the 2-Referee system. This Appendix provides a brief description of it. The full details are available free of charge from the World Squash Federation and WSF Member Nations.

Any organizer of competitive Squash wishing to try this system is urged to obtain the details from WSF and (if possible) to forward a brief report to WSF Head Office on the effectiveness of the system.

The 2-Referee system uses two officials only, known as the Referee and Appeals Referee. The Referee performs all the duties the Marker and Referee traditionally do in standard officiating. The Appeals Referee takes no part in control of the match unless there is an appeal by one of the players against a decision of the Referee or the Appeals Referee is certain the Referee has made an error in allowing play to continue. Either player may appeal to the Appeals Referee against any decision of the Referee. The decision of the Appeals Referee is final.

The Referee deals with all initial appeals on interference, player struck by ball and non-call of service or return, but any appeal against a Referee call on play goes directly to the Appeals Referee because the decision of the Referee is already known.

Both the Referee and the Appeals Referee can invoke Rule 17 Conduct on Court. The players cannot appeal against Rule 17 decisions.

APPENDIX 8.2. EXPERIMENTAL RULES

The World Squash Federation may from time to time request or authorize its members to carry out certain rules experiments.

Tournament organizers using experimental rules shall specify at the time of entry the manner in which any rules, definitions or appendices differ from those of the WSF.

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